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How to understand the maintenance and use of small petrol generators
One, gas. Intake and exhaust
1, intake. No matter which kind of gasoline generator is equipped with an air filter, because the engine work requires a mixture of specific gas and no impurity, it is not possible to operate the engine without an air filter, otherwise it will cause rapid engine wear. Air filter is divided into paper type and oil bath type. After the paper is used for a period of time, it is necessary to check whether the filter element is dirty or damaged. To remove the dirt on the filter element, replace the filter element if it cannot be removed. After the oil bath is used for a period of time, the filter element may be washed with warm water added with a household detergent, then rinsed with water, and the filter element is completely dried, then the oil is soaked and the excess oil is extruded. If there is too much oil left in the filter element, the engine will emit black smoke at the beginning of the start-up. Drain the dirty oil from the air cleaner when necessary, clean it with a non-flammable or highly flammable detergent, and add the recommended oil to the mark.
The front of the engine is equipped with a throttle control handle, generally push the throttle control handle to the left to adjust the amount of intake to control the mixing ratio of gasoline and air, too little intake, the oil is too strong, the engine emits thick smoke Or difficult to start. Too much air intake also causes the engine to ignite abnormally, affecting the compression of the gas and failing to generate electricity normally.
2, exhaust. Long-term use of the engine can also cause carbon deposition in the silencer passage, making the exhaust gas unobstructed. At a certain time, the coke must be scraped off and cleaned.
Second, oil. Fuel and Lubricants
1, fuel oil, the general use of gasoline for cars, due to petrol in the process of shipment and transportation will produce gum and contain some other impurities, when refueling, the fuel tank mouth is generally installed with a filter, but in the actual use of the process, if One or two layers of medical gauze are placed on the filter to provide better filtration.
Because gasoline is flammable and explosive under certain conditions, filling the engine with gasoline should only be done in a well-ventilated place after the engine is shut down and standby cooling. Smoking, naked flames or Mars are strictly prohibited when refuelling. Do not spill fuel over the tank (make sure the fuel port is not fueled). After refilling, make sure the tank cap is closed. If there is spillage of fuel during refuelling, clean it and ensure that the engine is ventilated and dry before starting.
The top of the general engine carburetor is equipped with a sub oil needle and a main oil needle is installed underneath. The mixing ratio of fuel and air is adjusted by rotating the oil needle. The oil needle is screwed into the oil and the mixture gas is diluted; the mixture gas is diluted; More, the mixture becomes thicker. The mixing ratio is too thin, the rotational speed of the motive is unstable, the mixture ratio is too strong, the cylinder emits smoke, and the motive speed becomes slow. When adjusting, first adjust the main oil needle and then adjust the auxiliary oil needle. When starting, turn the main oil needle out 3-4 times. After loading, slowly turn clockwise until the engine speed is stable. If the voltmeter is still more than 5V and unstable, turn the sub oil needle, rotate it slowly, and adjust it until the rotation speed is stable.
The gas mixture burned in the combustion chamber of a gasoline engine requires a thick and thin range. In order to express the richness and dilution of the gas mixture, the excess air coefficient a is commonly used. That is: (excess air ratio a-actual air volume L ÷ theoretical air volume L.), when the excess air coefficient is greater than 1, the mixture is dilute, less than 1 is rich, if greater than 1.4 or less than 0.4, mixing Gas will not be ignited.
2. Lubricant: Normally use 4-stroke oil or high-quality engine oil that meets US SG and SF grades. SAE1Ow3O oil is recommended. It is suitable for use under various air conditions. When checking, clean the oil dipstick and insert oil filler, but do not spin. If the oil level is too low, inject the recommended oil into the oil port. The oil grade used for the mixed oil should be determined according to the season. Usually, HQ1O to HQ-15 motor oil are used. After the lubricant has been used for a certain period of time, the dirt generated due to mechanical friction should be updated. Remember to add oil and refill the oil to the oil gauge to measure the capacity.
Third, the fire, the engine ignition
Ignition of the engine The battery is connected to the start solenoid valve via an electric start wire to start the engine and ignite with a magneto. When using a battery to ignite, a battery of 12V/35A or more should be used. Note the positive and negative poles when connecting after disassembly, and pay attention to the electrical starting wiring. Connect the positive pole of the battery first, then the negative pole, and connect the ground wire to the rear end of the generator. When loosening the wiring, first loosen the negative pole and then loosen the positive pole. The use of magnetic motor ignition, should pay attention to the gap between the platinum breaker, due to long-term on-off caused by the contact point burned and stained, so that the gap becomes larger or smaller, if the ignition is not normal, available No. 0 sandpaper, wipe the clean touch Point surface, if the platinum gap is too large or too small adjustable to the minimum gap of 0.02-0.05mm. In practical use, the thickness of an ordinary cigarette paper can be inserted into the opening gap of platinum, and then the thickness can be freely dragged back and forth. At this time, in the ignition system outside the cylinder test, the spark should continue to skip more than 6-8mm, the spark is purple white is better.
Fourth, electricity. Generator line
When the generator is connected to a load, care should be taken not to connect it to a load that exceeds the output power, and it is not possible to connect it to a home circuit to avoid damage or ignition of the motor. If the generator is not used for a long time, it will produce no electricity output. If the circuit is normal, there may be a disappearance of the magnetic pole remanence of the motor, which can be connected with four 1.5V large flashlight batteries, which will be about 6V. When the generator is running, put the positive wire of the battery. The negative terminal of the DC output of the bridge rectifier is connected to the “+” terminal, and the negative terminal of the rectifier is connected to the “1” terminal of the rectifier. The magnetic pole can be magnetized. When there is an AC voltage output, the battery is removed.
V. Compression, Cylinder and Piston
Compression, combustion, and work process of the air-fuel mixture are accomplished through the combined operation of the cylinder and the piston. The cylinder is a studio that compresses and combusts the gas mixture after it is burned. The most common problem is the spark plug deposit. After the engine has been used for a period of time, if it cannot be started, consider cylinder dirty, first check the spark plug, remove coke, and adjust the spark plug clearance to the specified value of the gas oil generator specification. For example, the KIPOR Cape Power gas oil generator is approximately 0.7-0.8mm (0.028-0.031n) thick equivalent to the thickness of a three-layer postcard. The LD75 generator is set between 0.3 and 0.4mm. When cleaning or replacing the spark plug, the spark plug should be tightened to prevent thread misfiring, and then tightened with a spark plug to compress the gasket. Note that the spark plug must be tightened or it may get very hot and may damage the engine.
Six, use. Start and stop the engine correctly
1. Start the generator: (1) Turn the fuel switch to the “ON” position; (2) Move the choke valve; (3) Push the throttle control handle to the left; (4-) Start the engine, A, Backflush Hand-start, turn the engine switch to the "on" position, gently pull the handle until you feel pressure, and then quickly pull. Be careful not to hit the engine with a violent rebound from the handle and slowly return the handle to prevent it from being knocked out. B、Electrical start, turn the engine switch to the start position, until the engine starts, pay attention to each start not more than 5 seconds, if it fails, wait 10 seconds before starting. When the engine starts, turn the switch to the ON (start) position. When the engine is warm, move the choke handle to the "on" position. Then set the throttle valve control handle to the desired engine speed position.
2. Stop the engine: If the engine stops during an emergency, turn the engine switch to the "OFF" position. Shutdown under normal conditions: (1) Close the throttle valve and push the throttle control handle to the right; (2) Turn the engine switch to the “OFF” position; (3) Turn the fuel switch to the “OFF” position. For the correct starting or stopping of different types of engines, the operating instructions of the model machine must be read carefully to help them master the method of use correctly and avoid accidents that should not occur.